Danube Virtual Museum

Natural Monument “The Profile of the Marine Neogene Sandbank in Kalemegdan”

The profile of the marine Neogene sandbank is located in Belgrade, southwards from the Sava river mouth into the Danube. It is a part of the northernmost branch of the hilly terrain of Šumadija, the so-called "Belgrade cape" which ends in steep slopes on the banks of the Sava and the Danube. The profile gained protection status for the first time in 1969.

The profile below the Belgrade Fortress at Kalemegdan is significant from the aspect of overviewing the complex geological structure of the area where Belgrade was built. The discovered Miocene - Badenian sediments create an antiform made by bending of the layers under the influence of radial tectonics. In the core of the Kalemegdan antiform above the Hammam, there are early Badenian sediments of sandy-sandstone type, from which more than 50 species of fossil molluscs were identified, mostly of the "Rakovački type". Late Badenian sandbank formations, known as the "Lajtovački" limestone and "Lajtovački" carbonate sandstone, lay over them. They are well exposed on the wings of the Kalemegdan "anticline", which emerge to the surface of the terrain near the Zoo and below the monument "The Victor". The profile below the monument "The Victor" is represented by the "Lajtovački" carbonate sandstone and contains many fossils, among which shells from the family Pectinidae are often find. This profile is a true natural rarity, the unique remnant of the Mediterranean phase, the oldest phase in the history of the Pannonian Sea in Serbia.

It is interesting that this stone - the "Lajtovački" limestone, once used to be cut in the Upper Town of the Belgrade Fortress, near the fountain of Suleiman, and that it was utilized to build a part of the ramparts and three towers above the Church Ružica.

The profile, as a part of the monumental complex of the Belgrade Fortress with Kalemegdan, with which it makes an inseparable unity, is a symbol of the history of the city - the most impressive monument of Belgrade.

Natural Monument “The Profile of the Marine Neogene Sandbank in Kalemegdan”


(Text: Institute for Nature Conservation of Serbia)